"My mother brought me into the world next to a heap of bodies," she says. From there, they were moved to a small town where Toby’s father obtained forged papers for Toby and her sister, allowing them to escape. Under German occupation, some non-Jewish Poles were deemed ethnically German and were conscripted into the German Army. Ed K. Ed's group of partisans had to scavenge for food and supplies from nearby towns and farms. Goldie was sent alone to a slave labor camp called Graben, where she and other young women were forced to manufacture textiles for the Nazi military. During the war, non-Jewish Poles were conscripted into forced labour in Germany and Maria’s parents sent her to live with family in Warsaw in an attempt to save her from being called up. He also donated a part of the extended Cardiac Care Unit at Southside Hospital in Bay Shore, NY. At its height, the Warsaw Ghetto imprisoned approximately 400,000 Jews confined into a 1.3 square mile area, all of whom were awaiting transport to the Treblinka death camp. When she was 13 years of age, the Nazi Army invaded Poland and occupied her home town along with the rest of Poland. In the autumn of 1942, several thousand inhabitants of the Krakow ghetto, including Toby and her sister, were moved to the Plaszow forced-labour camp. In the autumn of 1940, Warsaw’s Jewish population was forced into the ghetto. Only one may go, you must choose!” With her father unable to choose, Goldie volunteered to stay and for her sister to go home. 100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, SW Washington, DC 20024-2126 Main telephone: 202.488.0400 TTY: 202.488.0406 At the age of nine, with the Warsaw ghetto under Nazi control, his mother was forced to drop him off at a Salesian orphanage. Goldie was left alone at 15 years old, the sole survivor of her immediate and extended family. It is just as important to remember that the war and Birkenau defined only a handful of her 95 years. In Dorohucza, Stefi was briefly reunited with her one, remaining relative – little sister, Kayla. Goldie survived a death march in the winter of 1945 from Graben to the concentration camp Bergen-Belsen, where she was liberated on April 15, 1945. To the end of his life, Leon was able to describe vividly the liberation of his camp in 1945: waking up to the deep silence of his camp deserted overnight by German soldiers and the relief of seeing Russian soldiers enter. The survivors of the Holocaust, who emerged from a nightmare and managed to put together the pieces of a new life, have grown to old age in the 21st century. He was kept alive during the Holocaust by kind clergy — and by his own wits: Ed was born in Warsaw, Poland where he survived the Holocaust despite facing horrific adversity as a Jewish child. When 11, her entire family was deported. Here, Toby reflects on her experiences and describes the conditions in Plaszow camp.Toby Biber interview © IWM (IWM SR 19792)See audio record. They were not given graves or headstones by which to remember them… I always carry the shadows of my family left behind. Alfred ‘Freddie’ Knoller was born on 17 April 1921 in Vienna, Austria. Her obituary paints a picture of a happy life turned upside down by horror, and the strength that got her through it: Born Szyfra Fiszbaum to Syma and Yitzchak Fiszbaum in Lublin, Poland on May 15, 1926, Stefi was the third of four children. When the Warsaw Ghetto had been liquidated down to 40,000 Jews, the same German Officer helped both Sylvia and Morris escape the Ghetto. Living within the bustling heart of Polish culture and politics, the Fiszbaum’s large and joyful family enjoyed a bounteous life full of happy memories. After the war, Freddie was reunited with his two brothers and became a United States citizen. A Holocaust survivor shared his story about how he was able to survive, how a piece of paper and the bravery of a leader on a different landmass saved his life and gave him back his freedom. Older brothers, Velvel and Moshe, were seized and placed in the nearby Majdanek concentration camp, where they were viciously abused and later murdered. In the audio clips below, seven survivors talk about and reflect on their experiences. They remained there until the summer of 1943, when they were deported to Auschwitz and then to Bergen-Belsen in 1944. It was not until the 1939 German invasion of Poland that this contented family’s world was changed forever. Eisen's mother and siblings were killed upon their arrival at the Auschwitz concentration camp in May 1944. On May 17, 1943, Inge and her parents were among the last Jews in Berlin to be deported to Birkenau (Auschwitz). Jews, Roma and Sinti (Gypsies), Poles, Slavs, Soviet prisoners of war, people with disabilities, political opponents, communists and trade unionists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals and countless others were stripped of their rights, imprisoned, forced into slave labour and killed in vast numbers. The artworks shown here explore a range of reactions to the Holocaust – from the deeply personal responses of survivors to the more documentary approach of official war artists recording the sights of Bergen-Belsen after its liberation in April 1945. She met and married her husband at the camp and they immigrated to Britain in 1947. In addition to the notable Holocaust survivors who have died in the past year — Branko Lustig, Eva Kor, George Brady — many “regular folks” told their extraordinary stories in their recent obituaries. She later died in Auschwitz. As Jews were being rounded up in his town's marketplace and sent to Treblinka, his father told him to … Her obituary recalls how she was forced to use her talents to help her captors: After graduating high school, she apprenticed at the Photostudio Binder-Berlin. Meanwhile, the remaining family walked 18 miles to Moszenki, Poland, seeking refuge in a barn. After the war, Alex met his wife Maria. A child survivor of the Holocaust was reluctant to share his family’s full story, until he saw a picture of himself as a 4-year-old boy at Auschwitz on a website denying the Holocaust For years, Michael Bornstein, PHA ’62, wished he could wash away the serial number—B-1148—that was seared into his left forearm when heRead More Daniel Falkner was born in Poland in 1912 and grew up in the city of Rzeszow. Daniel and his wife escaped the ghetto and lived in hiding until discovered in 1943. The Nazis established Auschwitz in 1940 in the Polish suburbs of Oswiecim, building a complex of camps that became central to Hitler’s pursuit of a “Final Solutionto the Jewish question.” Nazis murdered between 1.1 million and 1.5 million people at Auschwitz, including more than one million Jews, but also Roma (gypsies), homosexuals, political dissidents and more. Holocaust survivors tell their stories on location at concentration camps for 360-degree videos Wed, 05/15/2019 - 3:05pm Eva Kuper was 2 when her mother’s cousin rescued her from a train in the frantic moments before it headed to the Treblinka death camp. Survivors walk in the former Nazi German concentration and extermination camp Auschwitz-Birkenau in Oswiecim, Poland January 27, 2017, to mark the 72nd anniversary of the liberation of the camp … A Holocaust survivor who cheated death in eight Nazi concentration camps during World War Two recalls his experiences, 70 years since the liberation of Auschwitz. Nazi death camps have received a great deal of attention in film and popular culture. Inge had a few important last words to share in her obituary: Just as she was among the last Jews to leave Berlin, Inge is one of the last Holocaust survivors to leave this world. This International Holocaust Memorial Day, January 27, 2020, marks 75 years since those held prisoner in the Auschwitz concentration camp were liberated. For nearly five years Stefi was imprisoned in several concentration camps, including Treblinka, Majdanek, and Dorohucza. She was suspected of being part of the Polish Resistance and arrested in 1943. The people on this list are or were survivors of Nazi Germany's attempt to exterminate the Jews in Europe before and during World War II.A state-enforced persecution of Jews in Nazi-controlled Europe lasted from the introduction of the Nuremberg Laws in 1935 to Hitler's defeat in 1945. In 1943, he joined the French Resistance and was eventually arrested. As the Allies advanced across Europe at the end of the Second World War, they came across concentration camps filled with sick and starving prisoners. Together they joined the Polish Army under British command and eventually settled in Britain. He never saw them again. As Allied troops advanced in April 1945, the Germans evacuated those prisoners deemed fit for forced labour and left the rest behind to die. Here, Daniel describes the conditions in the ghetto and the deportations to the Treblinka death camp. On January 18, 1945, the SS marched surviving prisoners away from the advancing Russian Army. Aaron Elster, unlike many Holocaust survivors, never spent time in a concentration camp. Freddie Knoller interview © IWM (IWM SR 9092)See object record. Learning Learning “Somehow the only thing that kept us from despairing was hope. The Museum’s Collections document the fate of Holocaust victims, survivors, rescuers, liberators, and others through artifacts, documents, photos, films, books, personal stories, and more.Search below to view digital records and find material that you can access at our library and at the Shapell Center. An in-depth examination PTSD among Holocaust survivors can be found in Human Adaptation to Extreme Stress: From the Holocaust to Vietnam, edited by John P. Wilson, Zev Harel and Boaz Kahana. They travelled to Italy, where they both joined the Polish Army under British command before eventually settling in Britain. Filip Muller’s testimony: Auschwitz Inge Schlesinger died at 95, having built a life as a bookkeeper in New York who wintered in Florida. Goldie Finkelstein recently died at 90, leaving behind generations of loved ones. From there he was sent to the Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria, where he was forced into slave labour and subjected to medical experimentation. Edgar Talmus died at 89 at home in Stockton, California. Alex Ossowski was a Polish civilian living in Starogard Gdański when the Second World War began. His (strong) opinions on a vast range of topics from politics to sports to the stock market were sought and respected by everyone who knew and loved him. Stefi Altman died in her adopted home of Houston at 91. Pages in category "Nazi concentration camp survivors" The following 49 pages are in this category, out of 49 total. Shortly after, Buchenwald was also evacuated, but Maria escaped during the journey. Thirteen holocaust survivors share their deeply personal stories of the harrowing experiences they faced while in the largest German Nazi concentration camp and extermination … Behind Every Name a Story consists of essays describing survivors’ experiences during the Holocaust, written by survivors or their families. The Nazis also enslaved and killed other groups who they perceived as racially, biologically or … She remained in Ravensbrück from 1942 until 1945, when she and other prisoners were evacuated from the camp in the wake of the Soviet advance through Germany. While working as an x-ray technician, she went to City College and Hunter College in Manhattan and graduated as one of only three women from NYU College of Medicine, Class of 1957. Here, Magdalena explains how supporting Nazi Germany conflicted with her religion. After only a few days, the SS called for a photographer. They were married 66 years, until Sol’s death in June, 2013. 34 quotes have been tagged as holocaust-survivor: Primo Levi: ‘I too entered the Lager as a nonbeliever, ... tags: concentration-camp, false-guilt, forgive-yourself, guilt, holocaust, holocaust-survivor, survival-instinct, traumatized, treblinka. This would be his ticket to medical school. Never forgetting the family he lost, Leon later gave back to his community in their honor: Leon was very philanthropic. Here, Freddie describes antisemitism in pre-war Austria and the effect the German annexation of Austria in March 1938 had on the Viennese Jewish community. Born in a concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Austria, Eva and her mother survived the horrors of the Holocaust and defied death before making a new life in Cardiff, Wales. In September 1938, Germany annexed territory along Czechoslovakia’s northern and western borders. It is essential to remember and share her story. Leon and his cousin returned to Wielun where Leon retrieved his matura, that he had the foresight to slip into a bottle, hermetically sealed with wax, and bury in the basement of his family home, now taken over by strangers. She learned after liberation that her entire family had been deported to Auschwitz in August, 1943, where they were gassed and burned within hours of arrival. Now elderly, these Holocaust survivors recount their childhood experiences of Nazi atrocities, and the impact it had on their lives. The Holocaust and survivors' stories. In April, outside of Leipzig, they were abandoned by the SS and discovered by Belgian POWs who gave them food and blankets. The Holocaust's youngest survivors: Three people born in a concentration camp on their incredible bond Now 70, they tell Giulia Rhodes about survival against the odds Giulia Rhodes Several thousand Jehovah’s Witnesses were arrested and sent to concentration camps and an estimated 250 others were executed after being tried by military tribunals. Jan Imich was nine years old when the Second World War broke out. Daniel avoided deportation by hiding under floorboards and was liberated. As he neared the age of compulsory military service in Poland, he was sent to a military academy. Daniel hoped to become a doctor but was unable to attend medical school because of restrictions placed on the number of Jewish students. The oral histories project, orchestrated and funded by Vida “Sister” Goldman Prince, has compiled first-hand accounts from over 145 people with powerful stories from the Holocaust.Listen to these stories from survivors, liberators and witnesses in their own words. She hid in a forest for two weeks before being discovered by farm labourers working nearby. A doctor escorts a group of Auschwitz survivors from the camp in January 1945. Paula realized a lifelong dream ten years later: Despite having missed much of her education because of the war, Paula still dreamed of becoming a doctor. Oral Histories. Most of them chose the anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz concentration camp by the Soviet Union in … Though careful not to show affection and thereby garner the attention of her heartless captors, Stefi was cheered by the presence of her sweet sister. They will be in my heart forever.”. After the war, Daniel joined the British Army as an interpreter and was reunited with his wife in 1946. At the age of 16, she was sent along with her parents and younger brother David to the Warsaw Ghetto with the rest of her town’s 6,000 member Jewish population for eventual extermination. There she remained, barely surviving, until Soviet liberators freed the area in 1944. We take a look at the stories of the people who survived the ordeal. He also recalls the events of 9 November 1938, when Germans staged mass violence against the Jewish communities of Germany, Austria and parts of Czechoslovakia. Many, as they leave this life, take one last chance to tell their stories — via their obituaries. As the Soviet Army neared Auschwitz in January 1945, the camp was evacuated and Maria was taken to the Ravensbrück and Buchenwald concentration camps in Germany. Magdalena Kusserow and her family were Jehovah’s Witnesses living in Bad Lippespringe, Germany when Hitler came to power in 1933. Yet the relative scarcity of true Holocaust stories underlines the difficulty of survival in the face of evil. Had she stayed behind, she doubtless would have been one of the 20,000 Dorohucza inmates murdered in one of the deadliest single massacres of the Holocaust. Later, Sylvia ensured that the loved ones she lost would never be forgotten: Recognizing that most of Kansas City’s Holocaust survivors had never had a funeral for their lost loved ones, Sylvia helped Morris organize the New American’s Club of the Jewish Community Center of Kansas City, MO, and in 1963 helped build the “Memorial to the Six Million Martyrs,” one of the first monuments in America ever dedicated to the lost Jewish populations of Europe. But she never forgot the family she lost to the Treblinka concentration camp: Sylvia was born in Grojec, Poland, and at very young age, worked with her father, Hershel Bekier and mother, Cyna Bekier in their bakery and bar businesses in the Grojec City Square. When Paula, her mother, and her aunt Rachel were transported to a labor camp via railroad car, her 5-year old sister Linka was concealed in a large knapsack. Goldie survived a death march in the winter of 1945 from Graben to the concentration camp Bergen-Belsen, where she was liberated on April 15, 1945. This is the Lydia’s incredible story. Giselle Cycowicz, a Holocaust survivor living in Jerusalem, shares her story by phone with a group of high school students on the phone as they visit Auschwitz concentration camp. Yet the relative scarcity of true Holocaust stories … Daringly, Stefi eventually escaped from Dorohucza by hiding amongst a group of travelling civilians and then dashing into the Polish wilderness. Once, they found a mound of potatoes. Buchenwald was liberated in April 1945. Holocaust Memorial Day refers to an annual day designated to honour the victims, survivors and rescuers of the Holocaust. He was taken to Drancy, a transit camp on the outskirts of Paris, and then deported to Auschwitz. A Holocaust survivor shared his story about how he was able to survive, how a piece of paper and the bravery of a leader on a different landmass saved his life and gave him back his freedom. Freddie took the uniform badge of a dead French political prisoner to conceal his Jewish identity. When the Nazis discovered Stefi was Jewish, she was beaten and taken to jail; and the priest, her only friend, was hanged for his humanitarian efforts. While Nazis were rounding up the children and arresting the priests Ed escaped, hiding in a church until he was able to contact his parents and reunite with them. Different countries chose various dates. Inge was selected and separated from her mother who was killed in the camp. she and her sister were sent to an orphanage while her parents were sent to concentration camps. Leon’s father was arrested at the border of Poland and Czechoslovakia and never seen again. Stefi was separated from her family and, with the help of a teacher and Catholic priest, was given a false identity and sent to the Jastkov labor camp. Alex received his conscription notice and under a new identity fled to Warsaw, where he joined the Polish Resistance. Get breaking news alerts& today's headlines inyour inbox. Ed remained intellectually curious and engaged all his life: He was fascinated – albeit at times frustrated – with the domestic and global state of affairs, and read both the American and Polish press on a daily basis. Around 6 million Jews were killed by the Germans in the Second World War. After liberation, she met her future husband Sol, also a concentration camp survivor, in a Displaced Persons camp in Stuttgart, Germany. Eventually, a kind-hearted farmer placed Stefi with another Jewish family hiding in a makeshift cave within his barn in the small, rural village of Plowszowice. Download the transcript of the survivors' testimony. Her father was able to bribe the authorities to release his daughters, but when they got to the gate to be freed, a senior Nazi SS officer said to her father, “Two sisters? Photograph: Heritage Images/Getty Images Tuesday 27 January is the 70th anniversary of … However, in an act so sadistic, she shortly thereafter witnessed the brutal murder of her beloved sibling. Unforgettable and Tragic Stories of the Holocaust Survivors. Magdalena and the other members of her family were arrested and after spending six months in a juvenile prison, she was told to sign a declaration renouncing her beliefs or face further imprisonment. At the Ghetto train station (the Warsaw Ghetto “Umschlagplatz”), while awaiting transport to certain death, Sylvia recognized a German officer whose home she had been ordered by the Nazis to clean days before and told Morris that she knew the German. All these donations were made in memory of his and Doris’s parents Jacob and Regina Madowicz and Isaac and Helen Rotenberg. Named 2017's Obituary Writer of the Year by the Society of Professional Obituary Writers. Disguised in civilian clothing and claiming to be a German refugee, Maria joined the workers until the Soviet Army arrived in April 1945. Holocaust survivor stories: Eddie Jaku is 98, and survived Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland. They divided them up one potato per person per day. Judith Jagermann was a Holocaust survivor from Karlsbad. His obituary details what he had to endure to get to that point: From an early age Leon had longed to be a doctor, but anti-Semitism was rampant and even with exemplary grades, he was initially denied admission to medical school. Here, Premysl describes an encounter with Austrian civilians following his deportation and remembers a particular incident at Mauthausen. He returned to Wielun where Jews were being assigned to clear rubble and were gradually being shipped out to labor camps. The material was critical to the German war effort and Auschwitz provided the perfect soil and slave labor. Sylvia and Morris then fled south to the farm of the Polish Catholic Gujik family who at the risk of their own lives and the lives of their children, hid them (along with Morris’ brother Meyer Indyg, sister Pauline Muller and brother-in-law Alexander Muller) in the loft of their barn and sustained the five people in hiding with food and shelter for over 26 months until the liberation of Poland by the Russian Army. Mielec’s Jewish community was deported in March 1942 and its residents were forced into a nearby forest. Accounts of Holocaust survivors and life in concentration camps have been the basis of compelling stories factual and fictional. This list may not reflect recent changes ( learn more ). For 10.5 hours a day, with Sundays off, she developed 35 mm film in a darkroom. As the Allied armies advanced through Europe in early 1945, Auschwitz was evacuated and the inmates were taken to the Dora-Nordhausen and Bergen-Belsen camps in Germany. During his time in one camp, he was forced to work at the crematorium, hauling coal to fuel the furnace. Magdalena refused and returned to prison before being sent to Ravensbrück concentration camp in northern Germany. He moved to London in 1947. As a photographer, Inge worked with accomplished women scientists – chemists, botanists, and agricultural engineers – to establish a source of rubber. Sylvia Indyg built a flourishing hotel and restaurant business in cities including Atlantic City, New Jersey before her death at 91. 1 likes. After completing military service he moved to Warsaw and shortly before September 1939, he was called up. Denied official working papers for being Jewish, Inge was paid in secret. He moved to London with his wife in the 1950s. At each location, she witnessed horrifically haunting images of human suffering and endured starvation, beatings and atrocious living conditions. Morris quickly befriended the Officer and together, both Sylvia and Morris avoided the boxcar transport, but were unable to additionally secure the release of her father, mother and younger brother from the train. Chuck Yeager (1923–2020), first human to go faster... Stella Tennant (1970–2020), British supermodel, Chad Stuart (1941—2020), singer with British Invasion duo Chad & Jeremy, Kevin Greene (1962–2020), legendary NFL pass rusher, Chuck Yeager (1923–2020), first human to go faster than the speed of sound. Holocaust survivor Florence Schulmann has always worried that if she went into schools to recount her experience, it would sound almost fantastical: "I'd be too scared that they wouldn't believe me." Those who defied Nazi authority either through individual or organised resistance also faced imprisonment, torture, forced labour and execution. Paula Neyman died at 93 in New York. As prisoners arrived, young children, the elderly and infirm were se… Nazi concentration camp survivor Joseph Alexander, right, spoke to a more-than-full room about his experience in different camps to commemorate Holocaust Remembrance Day at … Here, Maria describes what happened upon her arrival at Auschwitz and reflects on her own survival. Here, Alex explains how some Poles in Warsaw helped Jews while others denounced them and describes how the Polish Resistance treated collaborators. The camp was liberated by American troops in May 1945 and Premysl worked with the Americans as an interpreter. Alex Ossowski interview © IWM (IWM SR 19795)See audio record. Many years later, Stefi had to revisit those years in a quest for justice: Stefi also bravely testified against former Dorohucza Nazi soldier, Andrew Kuras, in his U.S. Sylvia lit the first of six eternal lamps on the Monument with each lamp representing the loss of a million Jewish men, women and children. A Holocaust survivor's acclaimed memoir about meeting his future wife across the wire fence of a concentration camp … Search All 1 Records in Our Collections. Holocaust survivor Florence Schulmann has always worried that if she went into schools to recount her experience, it would sound almost fantastical: "I'd be too scared that they wouldn't believe me." The child was eventually discovered hiding in the barracks by the Germans and ripped from Paula’s arms. The prisoners were discovered and freed by Soviet troops. This became known as Kristallnacht (‘Night of Broken Glass’). Those with the most vivid memories, who were adults during World War II, are mostly gone, and those few who are left are in the last years of their lives. “I hope the world will remember what I cannot forget,” Stefi once expressed. She never saw him again. Read on to discover these stories and remember the remarkable lives of the people who lived them. The three arrived in New York City in 1947. Toby’s sister died eight days after Belsen’s liberation in April 1945. Maria Ossowski interview © IWM (IWM SR 19794)See audio record. Accounts of Holocaust survivors and life in concentration camps have been the basis of compelling stories factual and fictional. The Warsaw Ghetto was a fortress from which almost no prisoners ever escaped. They came to the United States as refugees in 1948 and after a brief time in New York City, moved to Vineland, where they rebuilt their lives as chicken farmers and egg processors. In accordance with their religious beliefs, Jehovah’s Witnesses did not accept the authority of the Nazi regime and refused to be conscripted or participate in any military service. After 1933, Hitler's assumption of power in Germany saw the rise of Nazi persecution of ... of the destruction levelled on European Jewry by the Holocaust first became clear with allied liberation of the concentration camps. Martin Niemöller was a prominent Protestant pastor who emerged as an outspoken public foe of Adolf Hitler and spent the last seven years of Nazi rule in concentration camps Holocaust Survivors Speak Out Audio and visual recordings of hundreds of St. Louis area survivors have been preserved. The Nazis also enslaved and killed other groups who they perceived as racially, biologically or ideologically inferior or dangerous. His mother and brother Moshe, age 11, were arrested in Wielun and sent to Treblinka concentration camp. Maria felt it was still unsafe to return to Poland and, pretending to be a French civilian, she travelled west into the American and British zones of occupied Germany. They lived in hiding until arriving in Krakow in southern Poland. Following a series of antisemitic attacks on the Viennese Jewish community in 1938, he left Austria and lived as a refugee in Belgium and France. Map of DP Camp Föhrenwald, as illustrated by the United States Army after it was taken into use. They arrived in Czestochowa, Poland where they were eventually arrested with several thousand Jews and transferred to a labor camp to work in a munitions factory. The Holocaust was the systematic murder of Europe’s Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators during the Second World War. Leon Madowitz died at 97 after a life spent helping others as a family practice doctor in New York. Holocaust survivors tell their stories on location at concentration camps for 360-degree videos Wed, 05/15/2019 - 3:05pm Eva Kuper was 2 when her mother’s cousin rescued her from a train in the frantic moments before it headed to the Treblinka death camp. As a Jewish Pole, he was arrested and imprisoned in a series of concentration camps. Her unwavering voice joined the many others which bear witness to the brutal violence of the Holocaust and honor the enduring memory of loved ones inhumanely silenced by Nazi soldiers. Her harrowing story began with a sacrifice: When Goldie was 13, in March 1943, she and her older sister were grabbed off the street by the Nazis to be sent to a forced labor camp. He escaped Wielun in May 1942 with his cousin Jehoshua Eibeshitz, both disguised as farmers with pitchfork in hand. The … The Holocaust was a gruesome period in the history of the Jewish people. 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